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Thursday, 9 May 2019

Ping and vmkping - no longer two different commands in ESXi

Ping and vmkping used to be two different commands but these are not two different commands. Many years ago this change was made in the product. This is one of the feature which is not noticed by many of the admins.

Just check this directory:-
ls -l /bin/ping
ping is now linked with vmkping


Run:-
ping --help


Run:-
vmkping --help
Notice there is no change here in output

Wednesday, 8 May 2019

When Networking Configuration Operation Is Rolled Back and a Host Is Disconnected from vCenter Server?

In vSphere 5.1 or later, an attempt to perform a networking configuration operation on a vSphere Distributed Switch on a host, such as creating a virtual machine adapter or a port group, causes the host to disconnect from vCenter Server and results in the error message Transaction has rolled back on the host.

Reason
Under stressful conditions on a host, that is, if many concurrent networking operations compete for limited resources, the time to perform some of the operations might exceed the default timeout for rollback of network configuration operations on the distributed switch. As a result, these operations are rolled back.

For example, such a condition might come up when you create a VMkernel adapter on a host that has a very high number of switch ports or virtual adapters, all of which consume system resources on the host.

The default timeout to roll an operation back is 30 seconds.

To Change this Timeout 
1. Select vCenter Server in Inventory
2. Click on Manage Tab
3. Settings > Advanced Settings
4. Find out this Property ---- config.vpxd.network.rollbackTimeout 
If present Modify the Value. If not present create it and enter the value. Value will be in Seconds. > Click OK
5. Restart vCenter Server

 

Monday, 29 April 2019

Convert Minimal vRA Deployment to Enterprise Deployment

You cannot convert a minimal deployment to an enterprise deployment. To scale a deployment up, start with a small enterprise deployment, and add components to that. Starting with a minimal deployment is not supported.





Reference Link

Saturday, 27 April 2019

Switching VMware vCSA 6.7 Default Interface

1. Connect vCSA Appliance through SSH or Local Console
2. Switching from Appliance Shell  to bash  as default interface  
chsh -s /bin/bash root
3. Switching from  bash  to Appliance Shell as default interface
chsh -s /bin/appliancesh root

vRA Manager Service Automatic Failover

You can configure the vRealize Automation IaaS Manager Service to fail over to a backup when the primary Manager Service stops.

Starting in vRealize Automation 7.3, you no longer have to manually start or stop the Manager Service on each Windows server, to control which serves as primary or backup. Automatic Manager Service failover is enabled by default in the following cases.
  • When you install vRealize Automation silently or with the Installation Wizard.
  • When you upgrade IaaS through the administration interface or with the automatic upgrade script.
 Failover is not enabled when you use the standard Windows-based installer to add a Manager Service host or upgrade IaaS.

To enable automatic Manager Service failover after running the standard Windows installer, take the following steps.

Procedure
  • Log in as root to a console session on the vRealize Automation appliance.
  • Navigate to the following directory.
    • /usr/lib/vcac/tools/vami/commands
  • Enter the following command.
    • python ./manager-service-automatic-failover ENABLE
If you need to disable automatic failover throughout an IaaS deployment, enter the following command instead.

python ./manager-service-automatic-failover DISABLE

Thursday, 18 April 2019

Keyboard Shortcuts for Editing Commands in vCSA Bash Shell

Keyboard Shortcut
Details
Tab
Completes the current command. If you enter a part of the command name and press the Tab key, the system completes the command name.
To view the commands that match a set of characters that you enter, type a character and press the Tab key.
Enter (at the command line)
Runs the command that you entered.
Enter (at the Moreprompt)
Displays the next page of output.
Delete or Backspace
Deletes the character that is on the left of the cursor.
Left arrow or Ctrl+B
Moves the cursor one character to the left.
When you enter a command that extends beyond a single line, you can press the Left Arrow or Ctrl-B keys to go back to the beginning of the command.
Right arrow or Ctrl+F
Moves the cursor one character to the right.
Esc, B
Moves the cursor one word back.
Esc, F
Moves the cursor one word forward.
Ctrl+A
Moves the cursor to the beginning of the command line.
Ctrl+E
Moves the cursor to the end of the command line.
Ctrl+D
Deletes the character selected by the cursor.
Ctrl+W
Deletes the word next to the cursor.
Ctrl+K
Deletes the line forward. When you press Ctrl+K, everything that you entered starting from the cursor location to the end of the command line is deleted.
Ctrl+U or Ctrl+X
Deletes the line backward. When you press Ctrl+U, everything from the beginning of the command line to the cursor location is deleted.
Ctrl+T
Changes the places of the character to the left of the cursor with the character selected by the cursor.
Ctrl+R or Ctrl+L
Displays the system prompt and command line.
Ctrl+V or Esc, Q
Inserts a code to indicate to the system that the following keystroke must be treated as a command entry, not as an editing key.
Up arrow, or Ctrl+P
Recalls commands in the history buffer, beginning with the most recent command.
Down arrow or Ctrl+N
Returns to more recent commands in the history buffer after you use the Up arrow or Ctrl+P to recall commands.
Ctrl+Y
Recalls the most recent entry in the delete buffer. The delete buffer contains the last 10 items you have cut or deleted.
Esc, Y
Recalls the next entry in the delete buffer. The delete buffer contains the last 10 items you have cut or deleted. Press Ctrl+Y first to recall the most recent entry, and then press Esc, Y up to nine times to recall the remaining entries in the buffer.
Esc, C
Capitalizes the character selected by the cursor.
Esc, U
Changes the casing for all characters in the word selected by the cursor, up to the next space, to uppercase.
Esc, L
Changes the capitalized letters in a word from the character selected by the cursor to the end of the word to lowercase.

Plug-Ins in the vCenter Server 6.x Appliance Shell

The plug-ins in the vCenter Server Appliance provide you with access to various administrative tools. The plug-ins reside in the CLI itself. The plug-ins are standalone Linux or VMware utilities, which do not depend on any VMware service.

Plug-In
Description
com.vmware.clear
A plug-in that you can use to clear the terminal screen.
com.vmware.cmsso-util
A plug-in that you use for orchestrating changes to PNID, Machine Certificate, unregistering a node from Component Manager, vCenter Single Sign-On, reconfiguring vCenter Server with an embedded Platform Services Controller, and repointing vCenter Server to an external Platform Services Controller.
com.vmware.dcli
vAPI based CLI client.
com.vmware.nslookup
A plug-in that you can use to query the Domain Name System (DNS) to obtain domain name or IP address mapping or for any other specific DNS record.
com.vmware.pgrep
A plug-in that you can use to search for all named processes.
com.vmware.pgtop
A plug-in that you can use to monitor the PostgreSQL database.
com.vmware.ping
A plug-in that you can use to ping a remote host. Accepts the same arguments as bin/ping.
com.vmware.ping6
A plug-in that you can use to ping a remote host. Accepts the same arguments as bin/ping6.
com.vmware.portaccess
A plug-in that you can use to troubleshoot the port access of a host.
com.vmware.ps
A plug-in that you can use to see statistics on running processes.
com.vmware.rvc
Ruby vSphere Console
com.vmware.service-control
A plug-in that you can use to manage VMware services.
com.vmware.shell
A plug-in that allows access to the appliance Bash shell.
com.vmware.showlog
A plug-in that you can use to browse the log files.
com.vmware.shutdown
A plug-in that you can use to restart or power off the appliance.
com.vmware.software-packages
A plug-in that you can use to update the software packages in the appliance.
com.vmware.support-bundle
A plug-in that you can use to create a bundle on the local file system and export it to a remote Linux system. If you use the plug-in with the stream command, the support bundle is not created on the local file system, but is directly exported to the remote Linux system.
com.vmware.top
A plug-in that displays process information. Accepts the same arguments as /usr/bin/top/.
com.vmware.tracepath
A plug-in that traces path to a network host. Accepts the same arguments as /sbin/tracepath.
com.vmware.tracepath6
A plug-in that traces path to a network host. Accepts the same arguments as /sbin/tracepath6.
com.vmware.updatemgr-util
A plug-in that you can use to configure VMware Update Manager.
com.vmware.vcenter-restore
A plug-in that you can use to restore vCenter Server.
com.vmware.vimtop
A plug-in that you can use to view a list of vSphere services and their resource use.

Saturday, 13 April 2019

Take Training As An Option to Upgrade Your VMware VCP Certifications - New Announcement

VMware is now adding training options as an upgrade path for those re-certifying to the next version – no exam required.

For example, to upgrade from the VCP6.5-DCV to the VCP-2019, you can complete one of these (among others):
Each certification track will have its own list of accepted training, where applicable. Visit your track on our certification site to see which training may apply, as well as the standard upgrade paths (e.g. exams).
Here is the Example:-


Wednesday, 10 April 2019

How to check How many Custom Groups Membership Particular vROPS Object has?

Question:- How to check How many Custom Groups Membership Particular vROPS Object has?
Answer :- Search for the Object > Select that Object > All Alerts > Show Object Relationship

How to check How many tags are applied on Particular vROPS Object has?

Question:- How to check How many tags are applied on Particular vROPS Object?
Answer :- Search for the Object > Select that Object > All Alerts > Show Object Relationship



Transfer Report Schedules Ownership in vROPS 7.0

Scenario : One User in vROPS has configured Report Schedule, Now this user left the Organization, As the user leaves the organization user account of this user gets deleted too. Now How can we modify that report schedule that was created by user deleted now?

Answer :- This is possible with Transfer Report Schedules Ownership

Saturday, 6 April 2019

Port Mirroring in NSX-T 2.2

Port Mirroring is required to Mirror the traffic to an destination for Troubleshooting and other purposes.

In NSX-T Port Mirroring has following session types:-
1. Local SPAN
2. Logical SPAN
3. Remote SPAN
4. Remote L3 SPAN

Local SPAN = Source and Target Resides on the same transport Node
  • Source Transport Node (ESXi or KVM)
  • Source Physical NICs
  • Source VM from Transport Node Selected above
  • Target VM from Transport Node Selected Above
Logical SPAN =  Source and Target resides on same logical switch but can be any transport node

  • Source Logical Switch
  • Source VM on Logical Switch selected above
  • Target VM on Logical Switch selected above

Remote SPAN  
1. Remote SPAN Source =  Source is VM on Transport Node and Target is uplink of same host
  • Source Transport Node (ESXi or KVM)
  • Source VM from Transport Node Selected above
  • Target is Uplink of Transport Node
2. Remote SPAN Destination = Source is VLAN ID and Destination is VM on transport node
  • Source Transport Node (ESXi or KVM)
  • Source is VLAN ID
  • Target is VM from Transport Node Selected above


Remote L3 SPAN
ERSPAN 3 and ERSPAN 2
  • Source Transport Node (ESXi or KVM)
  • Source VM from Transport Node Selected above
  • Target is IP Address
GRE
  • Source is VM
  • Source is Logical Switch
  • Target is IP address

Bridge Configuration in NSX-T 2.2

If you want to enable the communication between GENEVE and VLAN based machines (VM's or Physical Machines) running in the same subnet then bridging is required for the same.


In NSX-T Bridge Nodes Can be 

Note :- Same Edge Cluster can be the part of  Multiple Bridge Profiles


Link Bridge Nodes with Overlay Logical Switch



Wednesday, 3 April 2019

How to Check VTEP IP in NSX Manager UI in NSX-T 2.2

If you want to VTEP IP in NSX-T 2.2, Follow these steps.
1. Login to NSX Manager UI


2. Fabric > Nodes > Transport Nodes > Select One of Transport Node > Monitor Tab > Under Tunnel Status you can view remote IP


Monday, 1 April 2019

How to Reset Admin and Audit User Password in NSX-T 2.2

If you want to Reset Admin and Audit User Password in NSX-T 2.2, here is procedure to reset it:-
1. Log in to NSX Manager via SSH
2. Run Command
set user username
provide old password
configure new password 
Bingo!!!!! It's Done

 

NSX-T L2 Bridge Demo

Sunday, 31 March 2019

Entries in VTEP Table, MAC Table and ARP Table - NSX-T

As we all know there are different entries in different table available in NSX-T, Lets take a look what are these entries available in VTEP Table, MAC Table and ARP Table.


NSX-T Interoperability Matrices with All VMware Solutions

Tuesday, 26 March 2019

NSX-T 2.2 Distributed Firewall (DFW)

Firewall is one of the security feature. In NSX-T Distributed firewall is applied at vNIC Level of the VM. This means it gets applied to the VM regardless of vMotion of the VM.

DFW Components
Note:-
There is no toggling between stateful and stateless once it is defined

Firewall Rules are enforced as follows:
  1. Rules are processed in top-to-bottom ordering.
  2. Each packet is checked against the top rule in the rule table before moving down the subsequent rules in the table.
  3. The first rule in the table that matches the traffic parameters is enforced.
How to Configure Distributed Firewall Rules
1. Login to NSX Manager UI


2. Firewall > Configuration > Select the Existing Section > Click on Add Section Above


3. Configure the section details
Note:-
There is no toggling between stateful and stateless once it is defined

4. Add rule in Section
Select Section > Click on 3 dot icon > add rule


5. Configure Rule Details. In my example i am dropping all type of traffic destined for Web Server Logical SwitchVMs > Publish


6. Now Verify the Rule Functionality. Check Ping to any Web Server VM or anything else.

To Know more about Firewall Rules Click Here

NSX-T 2.2 Understanding Traceflow

Use Traceflow to inspect the path of a packet as it travels from one logical port on the logical network to another logical port on the same network. Traceflow traces the transport node-level path of a packet injected at a logical port. The trace packet traverses the logical switch overlay, but is not visible to interfaces attached to the logical switch. In other words, no packet is actually delivered to the test packet’s intended recipients. This is one of troubleshooting tool to check where the packet is getting dropped.

Traceflow Traffic Types

Credit : VMware Docs
How to Use Traceflow
1. Login to NSX Manager UI


2.  Tools  > Traceflow > Unicast > Configure Source and Target > Trace






3. Once trace is completed, you can view the results. In this example i was tracing the connectivity between two VMs where one is on ESXi and another is on KVM




Monday, 25 March 2019

NSX-T 2.2 Logical Load Balancer

The NSX-T logical load balancer offers:-
  1. high-availability service for applications and 
  2. distributes the network traffic load among multiple servers.
The load balancer distributes incoming service requests evenly among multiple servers in such a way that the load distribution is transparent to users. Load balancing helps in achieving optimal resource utilization, maximizing throughput, minimizing response time, and avoiding overload.

You can map a virtual IP address to a set of pool servers for load balancing. The load balancer accepts TCP, UDP, HTTP, or HTTPS requests on the virtual IP address and decides which pool server to use.

Depending on your environment needs, you can scale the load balancer performance by increasing the existing virtual servers and pool members to handle heavy network traffic load.

Note:
  1. Logical load balancer is supported only on the Tier-1 logical router. 
  2. One load balancer can be attached only to a Tier-1 logical router.
Load Balancing Topologies

In-Line
Image Source: VMware Docs
One-Arm
Image Source: VMware Docs
NSX-T Load Balancer Features
  • Layer 4 - TCP and UDP
  • Layer 7 - HTTP and HTTPS with load balancer rules support
  • Server pools - static and dynamic with NSGroup
  • Persistence - Source-IP and Cookie persistence mode
  • Health check monitors - Active monitor which includes HTTP, HTPPS, TCP, UDP, and ICMP, and passive monitor
  • SNAT - Transparent, Automap, and IP List
  • HTTP upgrade
NSX-T Load Balancer Maximums
1. LB per NSX Edge


2. Max. Number of Virtual Servers and Pool Members Per LB


Configuring Load Balancer 
In this scenario we have two web servers behind Load Balancer. These two servers are going to be the part of one server pool and i have another sorry server pool with web server to display sorry message.
1. Create Server Pool
Server pool consists of one or more servers that are configured and running the same application. A single pool can be associated to both Layer 4 and Layer 7 virtual servers.
Prerequisites
  • If you use dynamic pool members, a NSGroup must be configured.
  • Depending on the monitoring you use, verify that active or passive health monitors are configured. 
Load Balancing > Server Pools > Server Pools > Add > Click on Next
Choose One of the Load Balancing Algorithm
Source: VMware Docs


Configure the SNAT Translation > Next



Add Pool Members > Next
Membership Type can be
  • Static
  • Dynamic

Select Active Health Monitor > Finish


2. Create Virtual Servers
Load Balancing > Virtual Servers > Virtual Servers > Add > Next


Configure VIP and Port Number > Next

Select Server Pool Created in Previous Step > Next


Click on Finish


3. Create Load Balancer
Load Balancing > Load Balancers > Load Balancer > Ok


Attach Load Balancer to a Virtual Server
Select Load Balancer > Actions > Attach to a Virtual Server


Attach Load Balancer to Tier-1 Logical Router


4. Configure Route Advertisement for LB VIP Routes on Tier-1 Router


5. Configure Route Redistribution For LB VIP Routes on Tier-0 Router


Now test the connectivity of these servers by using LB VIP (192.168.100.7)

If you want Sorry Server Configuration, Create Server Pool for Sorry Servers and Bind them Virtual Server Configuration.